Graduate counseling students’ learning, development, and retention of knowledge

Glenn W. Lambie, Kara P Ieva, Patrick R Mullen


The present study investigated 52 graduate counseling students’ levels of ethical and legal knowledge (Lambie, Hagedorn, & Ieva, 2010) and social-cognitive development (Hy & Loevinger, 1996) at three points: (a) prior to a counseling ethics course, (b) at the completion of the course, and (c) four months later. Students’ ethical and legal knowledge scores increased and they retained their learning; however, their social-cognitive development did not change. Implications for the scholarship of teaching and learning are discussed.


counselor education; counselor development; ethical and legal knowledge; social-cognitive development

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ISSN 1527-9316